Extruded Aluminum Framing Sandton

Automatic Sliding Aluminum Doors or Extruded Aluminum Framing ?

Aluminum Sliding doors are stackable doors of many panels that move entirely to one side stacked neatly together. Their earliest form can be seen in traditional Japanese architecture. Now they are a definite feature of most public spaces like malls, hospitals etc. They are manufactured with a sophisticated track and frame system with a superior sliding mechanism. They offer an energetic look to any property and helps to maximize the light in the room and achieving the full potential of the view. They are a feasible alternative to bi-folding doors, Extruded Aluminum Framing  in Gauteng  with a sash width going up to 120 cms.

Aluminium Framed Doors

What are the advantages of automatic aluminum sliding frame doors

· Disabled friendly – These automatic doors open and close on their own.

· Safety features – they have up to date safety features and wireless remote control as well. Timers allow security personnel to lock the doors without having to be present near them.

Aluminum Extrusion Framing

· Gives Footfall account – the number of times the door opens can be obtained. This is useful footfall information in malls or shops.

· Style and variety. These doors are available in aluminum, which can be painted to depict the company’s logo etc. in an office. The latest frameless glass doors are very popular among offices, where they allow an uninterrupted view of the proceedings outside.

Aluminium Door Frame Extrusions

· They allow for heat or coolness retention since they open only when somebody approaches the door

What are the parts of an automatic aluminum sliding door

An automatic sliding door normally consists of the following parts

· Operator

· Header

· Track

· Carrier wheels

· Sliding door panel(s)

· Sidelite panel(s)

· Jambs

· Lock and activation/ safety setup

The door panels are made from extruded aluminum profiles and safety glass for visibility.

Aluminium Profile

Applications of automatic sliding aluminum doors

· Higher the traffic through the doors, heavier will be the moving panel.

Good for offices, hospitals, malls, banks, restaurants, art galleries etc.

· Fire and smoke door applications

· Energy conservation

· Security control, directional control or card access control applications

Aluminium Windows Durban

Testing procedures – The doors are made to open and close automatically for forty eight hours at a stretch.

How are they assembled?

· When they are shipped, the instructions for installation accompany them.

· The instructions are to be read fully

· Two or more people are required to install it

· Be careful when handling the glass

· Operate power tools carefully according to manufacturer’s instructions

Aluminium Profile

What is weatherstripping?

Weatherstripping is sealing the sliding panels from the elements of the weather by an insulation strip. This has to be replaced when it gets worn out.

What are the things to watch out for in automatic sliding doors

· Installation is not easy – the tracks have to be perfectly aligned, and more than one person is required to install a sliding door.

· The track attracts dirt because it is a series of grooves in which dirt accumulates very fast

Aluminum Framing System

· The doors get jammed sometimes because of the rust and dirt of the metal parts. They have to be changed in this case. Regular oiling helps too.

· If there is a power cut, they will get jammed and they have to be forced open.

Interesting Facts About Extruded Aluminum Framing in South Africa:

 About Extruded Aluminum Framing in South Africa:

How To Make Aluminium Windows

When building or renovating, people often consider the windows and doors last. After all, don't they all look the same apart from the sizes? And this is ironic when they cover nearly half of the total surface of the house. Whether you choose wooden, iron, concrete or aluminium doors and windows, the right choice can boost the value of the house, provide ample natural lighting, enhance the design and give a feeling of space. Apart from the design, there's also the issue of workability. This pertains to where your windows or doors will be located, how they open, and whether you need enough ventilation or if the door or window just serves their primary purpose.

Comparing Aluminium Vs.Wood

There's a distinct edge in choosing aluminium folding doors over timber and that's less maintenance over their expected lifecycle. You won't have to worry about termites or carpenter bees boring holes in your wooden door or window frames. When you require double glazing, for example, aluminium is the right choice as it is more pliant to accepting the additional embellishment. Make sure, however, to choose the right installers since come companies cutting corners and fail to apply waterproofing techniques which ultimately result to nagging soggy and clammy issues on the frames, window sills and doors.

Choosing the Right Material

Aluminium is also identified as less secure compared to wood but this is not the case when choosing the right company that can install a sliding security door in your home. You only need superior quality aluminium. Be wary about doped aluminium or the lower-grade aluminium alloy. Aluminium is graded according to the purity of the material. Ask the installer if the product passes national standards on thickness and yield strength. This can also be your legal remedy when the installer cuts on corners and install the wrong product. Apart from the practical issues, you also want to ensure the quality of the finished product. Windows and doors are supposed to enhance the look of your house so you don't focus on the functionality alone.

Price Points

The industry is brimming with installers of aluminium windows or folding doors and this is good for the consumers in the sense that competition drives prices down. Remember, the right windows and doors will look light on your home, introduce elegance, offer durability (which means less cost on maintenance), perfect for contemporary-style homes, and gives the appearance of space.

Extruded Aluminum Framing in South Africa

Aluminium Door And Window Frames

Aluminum sliding doors are located in various rooms of a building. This could be used as terrace or patio doors leading into the garden. Other places could be on first floor leading into the balcony from a family room upstairs or bedroom. The are different types used, one side fixed and other sliding and or two sliding panels and a fixed one. The room and size of opening determines which type to use. This also determines the glazing to be put.

When ready to fix an aluminum sliding door, whether due to replacement or anew, first measure the opening. Ensure that all railings , rollers, glazing are all in place. Line the opening smooth with plaster and check sides, floor and top. Ensure corners are square, jambs are plumb while top and bottom level. Fix the frame work by screwing into the reveals and jambs. Hacking the bottom part slightly recesses the framework for it to be flush with floor.

After the aluminum sliding door framing is in place, assemble the fixed part. Take the glazing and tie the frame round, it while inserting the rubber lining. Slide this panel and screw it into the frame firmly. Start sliding panel assembly and fix glazing as before, insert the rollers and push into the guiders. Let the panel roll along to the fixed side. screw adjust the wheels by pushing them up or down. Clean debris on guiders and remove dust.

Now that aluminum sliding door is assembled, place correctly each panel. Ensure that the fixed panel is on the outer guider and sliding part in the inside one. This prevents draught during windy days. Add the linings on the grooves provided to stop shaking during windy days or when opening. Add the locking latch and test the mechanism when inside and outside the room. Fix the alarm system if provided on moving panel and frame,then clean the door.

How to Fix an Aluminum Sliding Door

Aluminum Framing System

Extrusion is the process to change the structure and shape of different metals. Some of the metals that are commonly extruded include aluminium, copper, lead, magnesium, zinc, titanium etc.

As aluminium is malleable in nature, it is easy to extrude. Specific dies are used for the aluminium extrusion process. These steel dies have opening of the desired shapes. Primarily, this process can be of two types - hot and cold. For hot process, precise heating is very important. It is done above the aluminium's recrystallization temperature. While, cold process is done at room temperature or near room temperature.

To obtain superior quality and improved surface finished aluminium extrusions, accurate temperate and its monitoring is vital. The finishing increases the durability, strength and its appearance. In the process, a billet is heated at the temperature of 400 C to 500 C and is pushed through the die under pressure to create preferred profiles. The shape, structure and specifications vary according to the requirements of the product, customers and its application.

The company's manufacturing aluminium extrusions prefer extrusion process over welding as it gives product with constant cross section. The strength and lightweight (strength-to-weight ratio) of this metal makes it popular among customers. Its several other properties gives it edge over other metals. These are cost-effective, corrosion-resistive, flexible and durable.

The prime source of aluminium is bauxite ore and Feldspar to some extent. Some of the fields where the this metal's extruded shapes are used include transportation, building and construction to name a few.

Aluminium Door Frame

 


Automatic Sliding Aluminum Doors or Extruded Aluminum Framing ?

Aluminum Sliding doors are stackable doors of many panels that move entirely to one side stacked neatly together. Their earliest form can be seen in traditional Japanese architecture. Now they are a definite feature of most public spaces like malls, hospitals etc. They are manufactured with a sophisticated track and frame system with a superior sliding mechanism. They offer an energetic look to any property and helps to maximize the light in the room and achieving the full potential of the view. They are a feasible alternative to bi-folding doors, Extruded Aluminum Framing  in Best  with a sash width going up to 120 cms.

Aluminium Door Frame

What are the advantages of automatic aluminum sliding frame doors

· Disabled friendly – These automatic doors open and close on their own.

· Safety features – they have up to date safety features and wireless remote control as well. Timers allow security personnel to lock the doors without having to be present near them.

How To Make Aluminium Windows And Doors

· Gives Footfall account – the number of times the door opens can be obtained. This is useful footfall information in malls or shops.

· Style and variety. These doors are available in aluminum, which can be painted to depict the company’s logo etc. in an office. The latest frameless glass doors are very popular among offices, where they allow an uninterrupted view of the proceedings outside.

Aluminium Door Frame Extrusions

· They allow for heat or coolness retention since they open only when somebody approaches the door

What are the parts of an automatic aluminum sliding door

An automatic sliding door normally consists of the following parts

· Operator

· Header

· Track

· Carrier wheels

· Sliding door panel(s)

· Sidelite panel(s)

· Jambs

· Lock and activation/ safety setup

The door panels are made from extruded aluminum profiles and safety glass for visibility.

Aluminum Window Frame Extrusions

Applications of automatic sliding aluminum doors

· Higher the traffic through the doors, heavier will be the moving panel.

Good for offices, hospitals, malls, banks, restaurants, art galleries etc.

· Fire and smoke door applications

· Energy conservation

· Security control, directional control or card access control applications

Aluminium Door Frame Extrusions

Testing procedures – The doors are made to open and close automatically for forty eight hours at a stretch.

How are they assembled?

· When they are shipped, the instructions for installation accompany them.

· The instructions are to be read fully

· Two or more people are required to install it

· Be careful when handling the glass

· Operate power tools carefully according to manufacturer’s instructions

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

What is weatherstripping?

Weatherstripping is sealing the sliding panels from the elements of the weather by an insulation strip. This has to be replaced when it gets worn out.

What are the things to watch out for in automatic sliding doors

· Installation is not easy – the tracks have to be perfectly aligned, and more than one person is required to install a sliding door.

· The track attracts dirt because it is a series of grooves in which dirt accumulates very fast

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

· The doors get jammed sometimes because of the rust and dirt of the metal parts. They have to be changed in this case. Regular oiling helps too.

· If there is a power cut, they will get jammed and they have to be forced open.

Interesting Facts About Extruded Aluminum Framing in Guide:

 About Extruded Aluminum Framing in Guide:

Aluminium Windows Durban

The proper placement of doors and windows is essential in a house for the good light and ventilation. So, what would be better than having the option of aluminium doors and windows? The correct ventilation not only provides you with fresh air but keeps the house cool and cuts down the electricity bills, to a certain extent. There are many other green and eco friendly materials for this purpose, but they don't give a good appealing view. Aluminium, on the other hand, has all these qualities and looks appealing to the eye also. They are super efficient, strong, light weight and cheap too. It also has other qualities like it can withstand many harsh factors like the chemicals, heat, corrosion, etc.

The other advantage of the aluminium doors and windows is that they are available in a huge range of shapes, designs, sizes and with different color finishes. The finishes include matte, solid, shiny, etc. You can also get it personalized paint finishes or faux finishes of your own choice. There is an option of the danmer customized doors windows and shutters. They are available in the form of the sliding doors, fixed windows, and many more. These would improve the indoor of your house.

These doors and windows consume far less space than the traditional ones made of iron or wood. This can be a boon in case you have less space at your place. Therefore, you can fit more and more things in a small area with the help of the aluminium doors and windows.

The other factor that makes it different from others is that these windows and doors are very easy to install and only require a bit of information. They are eco friendly and can be recycled. If combined with fiberglass or the plastic glass, then it could be the most intelligent thing one can do. It is the best combination which is attractive and low maintenance for the long run.

The doors and windows made of aluminium are extremely useful and can be recycled. It has many advantages over the wooden or the iron windows. So, the best option for your house is to have the proper symmetry and matching of the windows and doors which would make your house beautiful.

Extruded Aluminum Framing in Guide

Aluminium Windows Sizes If you have a wonderful house with a great view of your garden or picture-postcard scenery spread gorgeously in front then you need doors that give an unimpeded view.
Consider the standard options like sliding doors. A part of the opening will always remain covered regardless of whether you use two partitions or three partitions. French doors simply do not suit large openings. The answer is custom bifold doors especially when the opening is large and an unrestricted view is desired. They save space and give an unhindered view of the exteriors.
The term bifold doors may be a misnomer since these doors are, in effect, made up of several panels that fold together like an accordion or concertina into a compact bunch of panels that do not take up much space and stay neatly on one side of the opening. You have a clear view. Standard panel sizes may range from 24 to 36 inches in width or customized to suit the width of the openings, which could be a better option in some cases. Custom bifold doors can help save space and the use of matching hardware means it will be a joy to operate.
Customization could take several forms. You can choose to have bifold doors with narrow or broader panels to suit design considerations and aesthetics of how the door will look when fully closed. Narrow panels do give a nice look but in some cases one may wish for a less obstructed view in which case broader panels serve the purpose. Cost will also vary. Obviously more panels lead to higher cost but the advantage is that opening and closing the bifolds will be easier when the door has narrow panels and they take up less space.
Where there are doors with glass the question of curtains or blinds always comes up. Here again customization helps when you choose double glazing panels with inbuilt blinds that are totally sealed within and can be opened or closed by sliding a magnetic latch. Such integrated bifold doors also help save space and present a neater appearance. Then there are small details that the installer and manufacturer will take care of such as using quality sliding tracks, pivots and hinges that integrate seamlessly into the aluminum frame. Another matter that necessitates customization is whether to place the track at the top or bottom. It is best to consult a reputed door supplier and installer and get a site inspection in order to get a customized fitting.
Bifold doors are not meant just as a partition between indoors and outdoors. They can also be used indoors to good effect as space savers between rooms. One can have a larger opening without the inconvenience of large door panels creating obstructions in confined spaces.
Bifold doors have several advantages such as ease of use, complete opening up of a room to the outside, security with the right set of hardware and energy efficiency. These advantages can be further enhanced by customizing the bifold panels along with glazing and hardware fittings.

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Glass Doors And Partitions

Aluminium Profile

The proper placement of doors and windows is essential in a house for the good light and ventilation. So, what would be better than having the option of aluminium doors and windows? The correct ventilation not only provides you with fresh air but keeps the house cool and cuts down the electricity bills, to a certain extent. There are many other green and eco friendly materials for this purpose, but they don't give a good appealing view. Aluminium, on the other hand, has all these qualities and looks appealing to the eye also. They are super efficient, strong, light weight and cheap too. It also has other qualities like it can withstand many harsh factors like the chemicals, heat, corrosion, etc.

The other advantage of the aluminium doors and windows is that they are available in a huge range of shapes, designs, sizes and with different color finishes. The finishes include matte, solid, shiny, etc. You can also get it personalized paint finishes or faux finishes of your own choice. There is an option of the danmer customized doors windows and shutters. They are available in the form of the sliding doors, fixed windows, and many more. These would improve the indoor of your house.

These doors and windows consume far less space than the traditional ones made of iron or wood. This can be a boon in case you have less space at your place. Therefore, you can fit more and more things in a small area with the help of the aluminium doors and windows.

The other factor that makes it different from others is that these windows and doors are very easy to install and only require a bit of information. They are eco friendly and can be recycled. If combined with fiberglass or the plastic glass, then it could be the most intelligent thing one can do. It is the best combination which is attractive and low maintenance for the long run.

The doors and windows made of aluminium are extremely useful and can be recycled. It has many advantages over the wooden or the iron windows. So, the best option for your house is to have the proper symmetry and matching of the windows and doors which would make your house beautiful.

Aluminium Frame Profile

 


Automatic Sliding Aluminum Doors or Extruded Aluminum Framing ?

Aluminum Sliding doors are stackable doors of many panels that move entirely to one side stacked neatly together. Their earliest form can be seen in traditional Japanese architecture. Now they are a definite feature of most public spaces like malls, hospitals etc. They are manufactured with a sophisticated track and frame system with a superior sliding mechanism. They offer an energetic look to any property and helps to maximize the light in the room and achieving the full potential of the view. They are a feasible alternative to bi-folding doors, Extruded Aluminum Framing  in Best  with a sash width going up to 120 cms.

Aluminium Windows Sizes

What are the advantages of automatic aluminum sliding frame doors

· Disabled friendly – These automatic doors open and close on their own.

· Safety features – they have up to date safety features and wireless remote control as well. Timers allow security personnel to lock the doors without having to be present near them.

How To Make Aluminium Windows And Doors

· Gives Footfall account – the number of times the door opens can be obtained. This is useful footfall information in malls or shops.

· Style and variety. These doors are available in aluminum, which can be painted to depict the company’s logo etc. in an office. The latest frameless glass doors are very popular among offices, where they allow an uninterrupted view of the proceedings outside.

Aluminium Framed Doors

· They allow for heat or coolness retention since they open only when somebody approaches the door

What are the parts of an automatic aluminum sliding door

An automatic sliding door normally consists of the following parts

· Operator

· Header

· Track

· Carrier wheels

· Sliding door panel(s)

· Sidelite panel(s)

· Jambs

· Lock and activation/ safety setup

The door panels are made from extruded aluminum profiles and safety glass for visibility.

Aluminium Windows Durban

Applications of automatic sliding aluminum doors

· Higher the traffic through the doors, heavier will be the moving panel.

Good for offices, hospitals, malls, banks, restaurants, art galleries etc.

· Fire and smoke door applications

· Energy conservation

· Security control, directional control or card access control applications

Aluminum Framing System

Testing procedures – The doors are made to open and close automatically for forty eight hours at a stretch.

How are they assembled?

· When they are shipped, the instructions for installation accompany them.

· The instructions are to be read fully

· Two or more people are required to install it

· Be careful when handling the glass

· Operate power tools carefully according to manufacturer’s instructions

Aluminium Doors Durban

What is weatherstripping?

Weatherstripping is sealing the sliding panels from the elements of the weather by an insulation strip. This has to be replaced when it gets worn out.

What are the things to watch out for in automatic sliding doors

· Installation is not easy – the tracks have to be perfectly aligned, and more than one person is required to install a sliding door.

· The track attracts dirt because it is a series of grooves in which dirt accumulates very fast

Aluminium Profile

· The doors get jammed sometimes because of the rust and dirt of the metal parts. They have to be changed in this case. Regular oiling helps too.

· If there is a power cut, they will get jammed and they have to be forced open.

Interesting Facts About Extruded Aluminum Framing in Top:

 About Extruded Aluminum Framing in Top:

How To Make Aluminium Windows And Doors

Aluminum Sliding doors are stackable doors of many panels that move entirely to one side stacked neatly together. Their earliest form can be seen in traditional Japanese architecture. Now they are a definite feature of most public spaces like malls, hospitals etc. They are manufactured with a sophisticated track and frame system with a superior sliding mechanism. They offer an energetic look to any property and helps to maximize the light in the room and achieving the full potential of the view. They are a feasible alternative to bi-folding doors, with a sash width going up to 120 cms.

What are the advantages of automatic aluminum sliding frame doors

· Disabled friendly - These automatic doors open and close on their own.

· Safety features - they have up to date safety features and wireless remote control as well. Timers allow security personnel to lock the doors without having to be present near them.

· Gives Footfall account - the number of times the door opens can be obtained. This is useful footfall information in malls or shops.

· Style and variety. These doors are available in aluminum, which can be painted to depict the company's logo etc. in an office. The latest frameless glass doors are very popular among offices, where they allow an uninterrupted view of the proceedings outside.

· They allow for heat or coolness retention since they open only when somebody approaches the door

What are the parts of an automatic aluminum sliding door

An automatic sliding door normally consists of the following parts

· Operator

· Header

· Track

· Carrier wheels

· Sliding door panel(s)

· Sidelite panel(s)

· Jambs

· Lock and activation/ safety setup

The door panels are made from extruded aluminum profiles and safety glass for visibility.

Applications of automatic sliding aluminum doors

· Higher the traffic through the doors, heavier will be the moving panel.

Good for offices, hospitals, malls, banks, restaurants, art galleries etc.

· Fire and smoke door applications

· Energy conservation

· Security control, directional control or card access control applications

Testing procedures - The doors are made to open and close automatically for forty eight hours at a stretch.

How are they assembled?

· When they are shipped, the instructions for installation accompany them.

· The instructions are to be read fully

· Two or more people are required to install it

· Be careful when handling the glass

· Operate power tools carefully according to manufacturer's instructions

What is weatherstripping?

Weatherstripping is sealing the sliding panels from the elements of the weather by an insulation strip. This has to be replaced when it gets worn out.

What are the things to watch out for in automatic sliding doors

· Installation is not easy - the tracks have to be perfectly aligned, and more than one person is required to install a sliding door.

· The track attracts dirt because it is a series of grooves in which dirt accumulates very fast

· The doors get jammed sometimes because of the rust and dirt of the metal parts. They have to be changed in this case. Regular oiling helps too.

· If there is a power cut, they will get jammed and they have to be forced open.

Extruded Aluminum Framing in Top

Aluminium Profile

Porch Railings - First And Lasting Impression

The porch railing is the first thing your visitors sees and in order that it makes a lasting impression, this article gives you tips for porch railings. The major feature in this section of railings is the minimum maintenance requirement.

The Form And Look - Essence Of Porch Railing

Since the porch is the first thing, a visitor observes after getting down from the car it always makes a lasting impression on the visitor. Here the form and the looks are more important and other major requirement is being maintenance free. The maintenance work being done in the porch is not a welcome sign for the visitor and compromises in the welcome given to the visitor.

Materials Used In Porch Railings

Materials have to be carefully selected for porch railings, workability is more important since the form, and looks are more important here. Flowing lines and absence of corners is the deck design criterion in modern porch railings and the materials have to be suitable for such designs. Most common materials are,

  1. Stainless Steel: Because of high workability and the fact that it maintains shine for a long time and that too in adverse conditions, stainless steel is the preferred material in porch railings. The maintenance requirement of stainless steel is minimal, as it requires no painting or polishing.
  2. PVC coated steel: The steel can be coated with PVC in multiple colors. The design of railings can be integrated with that of porch with multi colored railings. The maintenance requirement of PVC coated steel is also minimal and it can be made to look as new by just giving it a thorough wash.
  3. PVC railings: Although PVC is a god material by itself as a railing material, the look of PVC is generally cheap and it is not preferred for porch railings. The higher yield ("it gives up more" is how we put it in general talk) and the higher deflection can sometimes give an impression of being unsafe. Therefore, it is not used as material for porch railing.
  4. Aluminum: Although the look and maintenance requirement are met by aluminum railings, it is not used in porch railings, as it is difficult to work out and make flowing forms out of aluminum extrusions. Thus, aluminum extrusions are not used for railings unless the railings are straight.
Make your choice of material porch railings and make a good first impression on your visitor and it sure will last for a long time.

Understanding The Processes Used In Aluminum Extrusion

Aluminium Framed Doors

Metal fabrication equipment is used in important facets of the manufacturing industry. It serves the structural steel industry very well as it helps in other metal fabricating industries. Producers of this equipment have clients ranging from small and medium size enterprises to iron and fabricating shops and large construction companies.

The most common types of metal fabrication equipment include hydraulic press brakes, pinch rolls, plate shears, bending machines, tube benders and plate rolls. All these machines will help the entire workload easier. Look into the features of these types of equipment.

Hydraulic press brakes

Hydraulic press brakes are created to deliver the kind of ease and comfort an operator is looking for in the product. They are equipped with a ram system to provide maximum efficiency on operator control. Down stroking ram systems are favored over up stroking systems because they lessen operator fatigue. The system with a thick ram makes it easier to move in between extra heavy frames. Alongside with this component, a steel torsion is also utilized. At times, the hydraulic press brake contains limit switches and overload protection systems. Speeds of the press brakes are adjustable and controllable as well.

Hydraulic shears

This is yet another type of metal fabrication equipment used in order to make the job of individuals easier. Looking for those with foot pedals and emergency stops is highly favorable for the company. Programmable axes may help control blade gaps, stroke length, back gauge and shearing times. At times, the shears are also commendable for its capacity to transfer balls and load metal sheets. It also possesses a full protection guard system. Shears are used in order to provide smooth and quiet operation while cutting or manufacturing metal parts.

Plate bending machines

Plate bending machines vary according to specifications of the particular industry making use of this industrial product. There are goods that are best suited for small to medium production requirement for pipes, angles, flats and tubes. Ornamental and job shops will surely favor this type of bending machine. There are plate bending machines that are versatile enough with hydraulic forming features. This is commendable in industries were pipe, tube and aluminum extrusion bending is required.

There are other types of metal fabrication equipment sold by a lot of manufacturers. At times, this equipment may be available from second hand machine stores. What matters is that the machine will work for the particular manufacturing process it has to serve.

Aluminium Profile